The popularity of rechargeable Li-ion and Li-ion-polymer fuel cells is understandable. A Li-ion battery has a higher power density, higher cell voltage, low self-discharge, and excellent cycle life when compared to other rechargeable batteries. They are also environmentally friendly and easy to charge and maintain.

Several portable products can also run on a single cell due to their relatively high capacitance (2.9 V to 4.2 V), streamlining the overall product design. There may be a debate about which battery feature is the most useful, depending on the requirements.

For providing the highest product runtime in the smallest physical size, too much emphasis has been placed on expanding Li-ion battery storage capacity.

What are the Characteristics of a Lithium-ion Battery?

Lithium is one of the lightest metals and one of the most reactive elements having the highest electrochemical potential, making it an excellent battery component. Lithium particles commute between the electrodes of the battery during the charging and discharging process.

Although there are several different types of Li-ion batteries, the three most popular composites in use today can all get boiled down to their anode material. Because of its higher charge capability, lithium-cobalt synthesis has become more prevalent in computers, cameras, and mobile phones.

Other composites get utilized when high discharge currents or increased safety are in demand or the point where the price is a primary consideration. In addition, hybrid electric Li-ion batteries are being developed, which will use a combination of cathode materials to combine the best features of each chemistry.

In addition to this, Li-ion batteries are gaining popularity due to their low-cost manufacturing strategy, which allows them to get moulded in various shapes, including compact ones. Charging and discharging the battery will ultimately deplete the current collector and cause other chemistry alterations, leading to increased resistance value and a permanent loss of capacity.

However, even though the battery is not in use, permanent storage loss occurs. With the voltage level maintained at 4.2 V, a permanent capacity loss is highest at elevated temperatures. Battery packs should be stored at 40°F with a 40% power for optimum storage period (refrigerator).

How to maintain battery health and improve its performance?

In most cases, a combination of factors contributes to increased or decreased battery life. Mentioned below are some tips on how to maintain battery health.

  • Store your li-ion batteries at room temperature

To improve the performance and life cycle of your li-ion batteries, always store them at room temperature. By room temperature, we mean between 20 and 25 degrees C. The most critical thing that can occur to a lithium-ion battery is to charge it to the full extent or get subjected to raise temperatures.

Hence, you should never leave or charge your portable device’s battery in your car if it is warm outside. Heat is by far the most substantial determinant when it comes to diminishing lithium-ion battery life.

  • Make sure to use only the half-discharging cycles

Using only 20% or 30% of the storage capacity before replenishing will significantly extend cycle life. 5 to 10 shallow discharge cycles are roughly equivalent to one complete discharging process.

Even though hundreds of partial-discharge rounds are possible, maintaining the battery entirely charged reduces battery life. If at all possible, prevent full discharge cycles.

  • Avoid charging the device to a 100% capacity.

To avoid charging to 100 percent, you can select a voltage with a lower float value. Lowering the float voltage extends the cycle and lifespan of the battery at the cost of capacity. Also, an afloat voltage drop of 100 to 300 mV can enhance the cycle life of your lithium-ion by three to four times or more.

Greater float voltages are more susceptible to Li-ion cobalt compositions than other chemistries. The float voltage of Li-ion sulphate cells is usually lower than that of Li-ion batteries.

  • Choose the appropriate charge termination technique

By not charging to 100% capacity, choosing a charger that employs minimal charge-current revocation (C/10 or C/x) can help increase battery life. Stopping a charge cycle when the current decreases to C/5, for example, is the same as lowering the float value to 4.1 V. The cell gets only charged to about 85% in both cases, which is a principal element in battery life.

  • Avoid higher charge and discharge current

The cycle life is shortened by rising charge and discharge current flow. Li-ion manganese and Li-ion sulphate are two chemistries that are better suited to higher currents. The battery is overworked when the voltage is higher.

  • Avoid lower discharges

A Li-ion battery will get permanently damaged by very heavy discharges. Internal metal coatings can cause a short circuit, rendering the battery useless and potentially dangerous. When charging or discharging a Li-ion battery, most fuel cells have protection circuitry that opens the power supply connection if the voltage level is less than 2.5 V or exceeds 4.3 V or if the battery current surpasses a predetermined threshold.

  • Make sure to keep in check the battery temperature

Limiting battery temperature like recharging below 0°C can enhance lithium-ion battery life. This is because charging at temperatures below 0°C encourages metal coating at the cell anode leading to a short cycle generating heat and making the battery volatile and dangerous. Hence to limit this problem, many lithium-ion battery chargers include a temperature sensor to ensure that charging does not occur at severe temperatures.

The Bottom Line

As the world transitions to battery-powered economies, we must improve the performance of all types of batteries, especially those in our cars and trucks. Lithium-ion batteries will be a significant driving force in the coming future.

We at Waaree ESS are India’s top lithium-ion battery manufacturer and present end-to-end energy storage solutions to our customers. Our team of experts work round the clock and use state of the art manufacturing tools to deliver long-lasting and excellent li-ion batteries.

To learn more about our services, you can give us a call at +91-7069022124 or drop us an email at crm@wess.co.in.